What is the principle of Bluetooth smart watch monitoring heart rate and electrocardiogram?

August 10, 2021
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Most smart watches on the market have some health-oriented functions, including heart rate monitoring and ECG monitoring. The appearance of these products provides a more convenient and fast channel for personal health management. But there are also many people who have questions. How does a watch monitor heart rate and electrocardiogram? Is the value accurate compared to the hospital measurement?

The principle of heart rate monitoring The watch uses a photoelectric volume pulse wave (PPG) sensor to collect heart rate data. This is already a very mature technology. This watch also pays great attention to "ergonomics". The match between the watch and the wrist is higher, which improves The measurement accuracy of the data.


Principle of ECG detection

The smart watch uses a pair of non-contact dry electrodes to collect a single ECG signal, which is suitable for short-term single ECG measurement. It is compact, convenient to carry, and has high accuracy. It is suitable for use at home and when going out. Especially in the case of sudden heart palpitations, chest tightness, dizziness, chest pain and other symptoms, it can monitor and record abnormal ECG data in time, and store it in the app, so as to provide reference data for doctors in diagnosis.


In addition, the smart watch adopts a self-developed high-sensitivity ECG acquisition module, which can directly collect ECG data, and convert the measured HRV value to obtain the heart aging, fatigue, and stress, and under the premise of ensuring accuracy To achieve the purpose of convenient testing and use, users can adjust the exercise intensity according to the daily fatigue value.


It is recommended to perform a benchmark test first. The fatigue value can be measured continuously for 4 to 6 days within 2 weeks, and the average value of this data can be used as the personal benchmark value. During the 2 weeks of the benchmark test, you should maintain your daily exercise volume, rather than a period of heavy exercise or complete rest. After the benchmark fatigue value is obtained in the test, before starting exercise in the later period, the actual measured value of the single fatigue degree can be compared with the fatigue benchmark value. The principle of plan formulation:

(1) When the test fatigue value

(2) When the test fatigue degree value> the personal fatigue degree reference value, the training intensity can be appropriately increased.


Heart rate

Changes in heart rate can directly or indirectly reflect the health of the human body in many aspects, which is the meaning of measuring heart rate. In the field of smart wear, the significance of measuring heart rate is mainly manifested in three aspects.


First of all, in terms of exercise, the heart rate can reflect the real information of the user's body during exercise. If the heart rate is too high and the exercise is too vigorous, and the user's body water evaporates too quickly, then this kind of exercise is not beneficial to the body. If the heart rate is not high enough for light exercise, the user It is impossible to burn enough calories.


Secondly, in terms of disease, monitoring whether the resting heart rate is in the normal range, monitoring cardiac arrest and abnormal increase in heart rate during daily activities can play a role in preventing diseases in time, and even monitoring the heart rate through ECG can detect whether the heart rhythm is abnormal. In addition, the photoplethysmographic pulse wave sensor can also monitor pulse wave changes to analyze pulse rate, blood oxygen concentration, and the state of microcirculation and peripheral blood vessels in diabetic patients.


Finally, the mental aspect. Through the monitored heart rate variability, the autonomic nervous function assessment can be analyzed, such as mental stress, tension and relaxation, and sleep quality.



ECG measurement can effectively prevent sports injuries. Studies have shown that excessive exercise under fatigue is one of the main causes of running injuries. Sports watches with ECG function mainly rely on accurate measurement of exercise heart rate, fatigue, and stress to prevent running sports injuries: exercise heart rate monitoring is used to monitor exercise intensity in real time during exercise, prevent sports injuries, and improve exercise efficiency; fatigue testing Evaluate the physical condition before exercise to prevent sports injuries caused by excessive exercise.

For the prevention of sudden death: Before the sudden death from exercise, the ECG of the sudden death will show abnormal changes. If the abnormal changes in the ECG can be captured and treated in time, it will greatly contribute to the prevention of sudden exercise death.

In daily heart health management, users can use the ECG watch as a daily monitoring and abnormality reminder. When abnormal ECG data is monitored, they can go to the hospital for detailed ECG monitoring and testing in order to prevent and confirm treatment. Smart watches use single-lead ECG monitoring, which has good reference value for arrhythmia, such as ventricular premature beats, atrial fibrillation, etc.; at the same time, single-lead ECG also has a certain diagnostic value for myocardial ischemia.